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Fan-Qui of China, The: Everyday Life in 19th Century China
Published by I.B.Tauris
Charles Downing provides one of the first detailed descriptions of life in China by a western visitor.
Charles Downing provides one of the first detailed descriptions of life in China by a western visitor. In particular, his three volumes provide a unique portrait of how the indigenous Chinese population viewed foreigners working and living in their country - the Fan-qui of the title. Among the wide range of topics included are commerce, culture, agriculture, religion, medicine, smuggling, shipping and navigation, together with unique information on attitudes to, and business restrictions upon, the English, Americans, Mohammedans, Russians, French and Malays who made up the Fan-qui population. Written at a time that marked the beginnings of free trade, The Fan-qui in China is a remarkably intimate yet authoritative account of a key period in China's history. With a new introduction by Peter Perdue, Professor of History at Yale University, these rare volumes will be welcomed by all those interested in the history, commerce and culture of China and its relations with other countries.
Contents VOLUME I Chapter 1 China trade restricted to Canton; British free-traders; Direct voyage; Double voyage; Straits' produce; Time of proceeding to China; Monsoons; China Sea; Typhoons; Destruction of native junks; Appearance of the ocean; Pulo-sapata; Dragon flies; The Ladrones; Outside pilots; Dress of fishermen; Departure for Macao; Boatmen; Olo man; Description of fast boat; Night among the Islands; Ye-moon; Yat-moon; Passage between them; Ghos-paper, crackers; Ghos-pidgeon; Chinese bed; Pillow; Ghos-house; Ghos-stic; Altercation among fishermen; The larger Chee-Chow; Departure and arrival at the port Chapter 2 Macao; Mandarins; Egg-boats; Portuguese settlement; Government of the place; Residence of European ladies; Marquick's Hotel; Evening promenades; Chinese Philosophers; Servants and waiters; Barborous language; Cave of Camoens; Beale's gardens; Communication between Macao and Canton; Broadway river; Departure; Port custom; Approaching thunderstorm; Management of Chinese sailors; Island of Laf-samee; Inside pilot; Departure of outside pilotChapter 3 Macao roads; Contraband trade; Consumption of opium; Lintin; Cum-sing-moon; Opium trade; Clippers; Smug-boats; Receiving vessels; Chinese courage; Peak and island of Lintin; Fishing stakes; Bocca Tigris; Anna-hoy; Anson's bay; Chuen-pee; The chop; Battle of Bogue; First and batteries; Native pirates; Jealous precaution of the government against Portuguese; Native chronicles; Tiger island and fort; Paddy ground; Duck-boats; Second-bar Pagoda; Stone quarries; Bar boats Chapter 4 Whampoa village; First-bar; View of fleet in Whampoa Reach; Importance of the trade; Was-boats; Chinese girls; Collection of small stores; Port customs; Security system; Compradores; Olo acow; San-pan-Sam; Modes of cheating in former times; Preventive service; Polite dialogue; Supply of meat; Preparations for unloading; The linguist; The clerks' boats; The pursers; Their apparatus; The chops or cargo-boats; UnloadingChapter 5 Great variety of craft on the river; Numbers of people who live on the water; Maternal precaution; General description of the boats; The eye on the bows; Large junks; The Loong-froong; Merchant junk; Entering Junk river; Men-of-war; Cannon; Compass; Mandarin boat; Occupation; Smug-boats; Smugglers; Way of proceeding; The river Tigris; Intricate channels; Chase and capture of a smugglerChapter 6 The great plain of Quang-see; The great rivers; Narrow limits for foreigners; Danger of being bambooed; Danes an French islands; Sam-shu wigwam; Native tombs; Second bar pagoda; Whampoa Reach; The double-decker; Rice ship; Chinese and foreign smallcraft; Quickness of natives; American vessels; Green paddy-fields; Range of mountains; The pauper's tombstone; Seaman's burial ground; Country pagodas; The quoit ground; Causeway; Theatre; Rice agriculture; Duck-boats; Management of birds Chapter 7 Chinese boats; Clerks-boats; External ornament; Internal arrangement; Mosquitoes and flies; Musical instruments; Tea-drinking; Smoking pipes; Opium smoking; Lanterns; The swan-pan; Way of writing; Sealing the chop; The written language; Original formation of the characters; Number of words; The keys; Difficulty of language; Oral tongue; Accents; Writing paper; India paper; Cargo-boats; The barber's san-pan, etc; Deafness of many Chinese; Sam-shu smuggling; Eel-boats; Management of small boats; The paddle; Oars and sculls; Mat sails; Hoppo-boat Chapter 8 Temperature; South-west monsoon; Unhealthiness of Whampoa; Improvidence of common sailors; Breaking up of monsoon; Spasmodic cholera; Cause of intense cold in China; North-east monsoon; Paddy-lands; Marsh miasm; Mixture of salt and fresh water; Sam-shu, its manufacture and poisonous nature; Recklessness of sailors; Smuggling sam-shu; San-pans; Sailors' holiday; Hog Lane; Ingenious contrivance; The sailor's death and burial Chapter 9 Navigation of River Tigris; Progress to Canton; The dollar-boat; Fishing-stakes; Whampoa Island; Nine-story pagoda; Smuggler's battery; River-craft; Junks; Passage-boats; San-pans; Cheap travelling; Fruit-women; Insolence of native; Horror of foreigners; The foreign ghosts; Ghos-pidgeon; Halfway house; Halfway pagoda; Ghos-house; Divarication of the stream; Currents of wind; The windward passage; Fruit-banks; The Chinese Blackwall; Sailmaker; Boatbuilder; Chop-house; Mandarin-boats; The floating islands; The leeward passage; Dangerous route; The Canton fishery; Accidents from the fishing stakes; Infanticide; Maternal tendernessChapter 10 Approach to Canton; Trading junks; Egg-shaped boats; Dockyards; Men-of-war; Up-country barges; Foreign commerce; Inland traffic; Accident on the river; Cargo- boats; Chinese costermonger; Morning visits; Effeminate appearance of upper classes; Flags of the factories; The English Ensign wanting;. Flower-boats; Chinese women; Dangerous experiments; Anecdotes; Chinese modesty; The Tan-kea or boat-people; Female visitors; Names of females; The Town of Boats; Houses; Streets; Lanes and alleys; Constant uproar; Cochin-Chinese junks; Tea-boatsChapter 11 The landing; Difficulties of getting ashore; Ol women; Paddles; Stairs and jetties; Mandarins and Hoppos; Smuggling; The Company's Gaut; The garden; Jealousy of government; Hongs; English wherries and funnies; Amusements of the residents; Restrictions on foreigners; Hotel of Standford and Marks; Company's factory; Assembly rooms; Life in an inn in China; Native servants; Tradesmen; Portable stoves; Apartments; Uncomfortable appearance; The vale-de-chambre; Calling a servant; Getting rid of one; Dress; Whiteness of hands; Long sleeves Chapter 12 Mercantile hardships; Chinese pride; Troubles about native servants; First granted in 1715; Admiral Drury; The linguist; Lord Napier's visit; Night at the inn; The levee; Unknown visitors; Native calculations; Shopkeepers; Chinese English; Tailors; Odd blunders; Tailors at Whampoa; Settling and account; Cumshaw; Shoemakers; Chinese Hoby; Open house of wealthy residents; The suburb; its extent; Squares; Warehouses of Hong merchants; Old and new China Streets; Courts and alleys; Absence of wheel-carriages and beast of burden; Arrangement of shops; The gates of the city; The guards; Pusillanimity of native soldiersChapter 13 Parts to which foreigners have access; Policy of the government; Extensive mercantile transactions; The Annual Edict; Feast of Lanterns; The square before the factories; Foundation of the Hongs; The floods; View of the river; Crowds of natives; Their occupations; The raree-shows; Depravity of lower orders; Regulation of dress; The boat-people; Cages of live animals; Chow-chow; Dog eating; Food of middle classes; Expulsion of shepherds; Food of upper ranks; The birds'-nests; Sea- slug; Poor people omnivorous; Chinese dog; Dog-butchers; Cats; Wild cat; Rats; Rice; Drinks; Drinks; Tea; Fern leaves; Sam-shu; Opium; Tobacco VOLUME IIChapter 1 Population of China; Chang-she's family party; Rapid increase of population; Agriculture; Yao and Chun; War with the beasts; Pastoral ages; Quarrels between cultivators and shepherds; Grades of society; Encouragement to agriculture; Imperial ceremony; Processions of viceroys and governors; Buffalo of clay; Reign of Mantchoo emperors; Productiveness of the country; Extent of cultivated land; Division of the ground; The 'working-wives of Kiang-see'; Scarcity of animals; Water-engines; Collection of manures; Terrace cultivation; Life on the water; Fishermen; Emigration; Infanticide; Importation of rice; Means of smuggling; Famines; Difference between India and China; The Indian and Chinese at dinner; Area of Chinese empire; Immense family of the ChineseChapter 2 Outside shopkeepers of Canton; Oppression by mandarins; Dealings with foreigners; Spanish dollars, Opium trade; Native weights; The Tael; Candareen; mace; The Tchen; Strings of money; Scales for heavy weights; Ivory balance; Catty; Pecul; China Street; Native females; Process of forming small feet; Origin of the custom; Not adopted by the Tartars; Sedans of Hong merchants; Houses; Arrangement of shops; Warehouses of mixed goods; Butterflies and insects; Toys; Fireworks; Character of tradesmen; The Cumshaw; Tea-drinkingChapter 3 Isolated state of the Chinese; Discovery of fire; Uncertainty of original discoveries; Gunpowder; Mariner's compass; Chinese injustice; Vaccination; Minor branches of art; Lacker-ware shops; Caution of the natives; General use of fans; Native customers; Their quiet, inoffensive behaviour; Operation of varnishing; Collecting the resin; The varnish-tree; Real Japan-ware; Chinese muster; Ivory carving; Sphere within sphere; Ho-shing; Skill of the carver; Ivory market; Tortoiseshell and mother- o'-pearl; Sandal wood; Black woods; Roots of bamboo; Pleasure derived from the wonderful; The figure-stone; Porcelain shops; Porcelain trade; Superiority of Chinese porcelain; Old and new ware; Manufacture of large pieces; The city of King-tse- tchingChapter 4 The art of painting; national taste; Lamquoi the painter; Artist's houses; The shop; Stone carving; Rice paper; Indian ink; The workshop; Copying; Manufacture of rice- paper drawings; Preparing the colours; The brushes; Native dexterity; State of the art in China; Minute workmanship; Ignorance of light and shade; Queen Elizabeth's portrait; Chinese landscapes; Very old drawings; Painting on glass; Lamquoi's studio; Memento mori; Prospect of improvementChapter 5 Chinese festivals; New year of business; Chin-chin Gjhos; China Street; Exclusion females; Orderly behaviour; Foreigners in the mob; Exhibitions; Lof-pidgeon; Lamps and variegated lanterns; A Chinese illumination; Theatricals; Temporary stage; Male actresses; Degradation of comedians; Strolling troops; Floating theatres; Royal entertainment; Lord MaCartney; Collection of plays; Songs and singing; Beauties of the drama; Novel dramatis personae; The back streets; felt statues; Music; Subscription of tradesmen; Festivals in general; The emperor and empress; The new year; Chinese felicity; Race of dragon-boatsChapter 6 The Celestial Empire; temperate habits; Apothecaries' shops; Chinese doctor; Drugs; Ginseng; Wonder-working root; Herb-gatherers; Effects of tea and opium; Jesuit Duhalde; Chinese ink; Two doctors at once; Mercury; Quack's handbills; Study of medicine; Anatomy; Misplaced knowledge; Astrology; Pious work; Singapore; Physiology; The shadow in the water; The nose ancestor; Influence of the planets; Chinese Pentad; The five colours; The Yang and Yin; Doctrine of the pulse; Mahommedans; Animal magnetismChapter 7 The experience of a thousand years; Inoculation for smallpox; The moxa; Fashionable doctor; Want of sleep; Curious treatment; School of medicine; History of smallpox; Vaccination; Jesuits; Patients at Whampoa; Ophthalmic hospital at Macao; Canton hospital; Handsome-face painters; Missionaries; PhilanthropyChapter 8 Chinese hospital at Canton; Native patients; Ladies from Nan-king; Rouge; The arched eyebrow; Obliquity of eyelids; Beauty; Hair; Married and betrothed; Dresses; Female colours; Extreme modesty; The twin sisters; Close prisoners; Character of natives; Chinese gratitude; The Cheefoo's secretary; Opinion of the American; Ma-szeyay's poem; Number of patients; Prevalent disorders; Affections of the eyes; Of the ears; Cutaneous diseases; Tumours; Native surgery; Bad cases; Contract between doctor and patient; Operations; Chinese fortitude; Moral courageChapter 9 The merchant sailor; Want of judicature; Rendezvous at Canton; Sam-shu shops; Incongruous shops; Coffee-shops; Natives of Canton; Depravity; Squeezing; Ma-tse; Extortion of mandarins; High treason; Seaport towns; Value of dollar; Native honesty; Egg-house people; hard case; The City of Refuge; Origin of Tan-kea; Laws and regulations; The Oranbadjoos; Character of crimes; Arson; The great fire at Canton; Lord Anson; Fanaticism; Chinese pickpockets; The passage-boats; The Fan-qui outwitted; Battle-royal; The track of vice; Hog LaneChapter 10 Burglaries in Canton; back streets; Mixed crowd; Native barbers; The Parsees; Coolies; Beggars; Lepers; Cripples; Cheap music; Noisy duns; Heavenly Flower Society; Poor-laws in China; Charitable institutions; Imperial generosity; Cheap living; City police; Wicket gates; Watchmen; Chinaman and his lantern; Large nursery; Espionage; Governor Le; Official reports; Responsibility; Imperial edict; George IV; Chinese government; Political sermons; Petit treason; Maxim against Maxim; Public examinations; Literary perseverance; The Son of HeavenChapter 11 Mandarins; Chinese punishments; Mild jurisdiction; The bamboo; Court of Justice; Infliction of blows; Thanking the judge; Female offenders; The leather flapper; Consideration shown to women; The kia or cangue; Imperial clemency; Alleviation of punishment; Ty-yo or hell; Prisons; Chain, handcuff and fetters; Torture; Criminal judges; Capital punishment; Chinese executioner; Strangulation; Polite request; The Ling-chyChapter 12 Banishment; Attachment to native place; Hall of Ancestors; Neglected tombs; Emigrants; Tartary; Employment or exiles; The cold country; Goose-tail; Transportation to Elee; Siberia of China; The Leu Lee; Laws for foreigners; Homicide; Tan-kea; Tartars; Ma-out-tse; Chin-tchew men; Law of high treason; The Son of Heaven; Petit treason; Partiality to foreigners; The old, young and afflicted; Family feuds; Cursing a thiefChapter 13 Our knowledge of the Chinese; The language; Protestant missionaries; Mixed races; Various sects; Superstitious natives; Owners of junks; Native sailors; Chin-techew men; Idolatry; Teen-how; Procession; Idolatrous entertainment; Offerings to spirits; The compass; Junks at Whompoa; Very old custom; Government cargo-boats; Villages; Three days' festival; Chin-chin Ghos; Salutations; Medley of sweet sounds; Interior of temple; Floating fireworks VOLUME IIIChapter 1 Country pagodas; Nine-story pagodas; Galleries; Blue brick; Vegetation; Ascent of the tower; River Tigris an Broadway; Honan Island; Country houses; Temple of Buddha; Dirty suburb; Giant porters; Chin-ky and Chin-loong; Principle temple; Grand hall; Three precious Fuh; Manly beauty; Incense; Lohan or saints; Priests; bell and drum; Chanting; The kotow; Many armed goddess; Marble vase; Holy water; Relics of Budh; Fatting pigs; Transmigration of souls; Gardens; CemeteryChapter 2 Chinese theology; The three sects; Toleration; Buddhism in Tibet; Birthplace of Budh; The Cingelese; O'Brien's opinion; Commandments; Ceremonies of Buddhites and Romanists; The hierarchy; The Lama; Eclectic school in China; Gods and goddesses; Friars of Fo; Jesuits in China; Agency of the Devil; Deification of Napoleon; Teen-how; Virgin and child; Importation of Buddhism from India; Accommodating ambassadorsChapter 3 The State religion; Confucian philosophy; High Priest and clergy; Antiquity of Joo; Life of Kung-tsze; His contemporaries; Thirteen states; Visit to Laou-tsze; Deer; Divinities of Joo; Imperial sacrifices; Political sermons; Laou-tsze; His priests; Alchemy; Monastery of Taou; Consecration of Penates; Charms and talismans; Astrology; The book of fate; Royal marriageChapter 4 Mahomedans in China; Jews; Religious banditti; A late insurrection; Punishment of Offenders; Fear of civil commotion; Chinese theology; Jesuit missionaries; Matteo Ricci; Kang-hy; Agency of Satan; Religion of beggarly fellows; Dominicans and Franciscans; Persecution of Christians; Yaysoo Keaou; The late edicts; Efforts of missionaries; Japanese empire; Estimate of Christians in China; Map of the missions; The last edict; Malacca college; Chinese hospitals; Missionary surgeonsChapter 5 The Provincial City; Palaces of grandees; Official dignity; The Tsung-tuh; Foo-yuen; Nobility; The nine ranks; The Maou-ting; Governor Le; Local authorities; The Hoppo; Tartar favourite; Installation of Hoppo; Visit to Fan-quis; The procession; State breakfast; Court-dress; Peacock's feather; Foreign curiosities; Prejudice; Chinese notions of Europeans; Barbarians; Foreign countries; Europe; Country of the Crows and Demons; The French; The English; British females; The English Ambassador; The Dutch; Red-haired men; Unpleasant curiosity; Wandering spirits; Queit-ze an-qui; Translation of terms Chapter 6 The Hong merchants; Their number; Mercantile firms; Ching's Hong;The co-Hong; Punishment of bankrupts; Cannot retire; System of security; Charge of Fan-quis; Scape-goats; Treason; Colleaguing with foreigners; Smuggling; Story of Aming, the Hong merchant; The compradore; Contraband, Wealth; Made a Hong merchant; Friend to foreigners; Sycee silver; Capture of Parsee boat; Waylaying a native; Imprisonment; Brutal treatment; Forcing confession; Degrading exposure; Wearing the cangue; Waning to Hong merchants and foreigners; Profits from tea- trade; Sedans; Purchasing rank; Privileges; Chinese hospitality; Card of invitation; Invitation to marriage feast; Chopsticks; Prejudice; Present hongs and linguistsChapter 7 The Provincial City; Collections of foreigners; Frontage of Hongs; Privileges of trade; The Russians; Overland trade; Russians in Peking; The Dutch; Spaniards; Trade to Amoy; Swedes ad Danes; French; tea, an antidote to cholera; Americans; Hong of extensive fountains; Second-chop Englishmen; British factory; Hong which ensures tranquillity; Respect paid to English; The Company's establishment; The Taepans; Mode of conducting trade; tea inspectors; Shares of trade; Exemptions in favour of the Company; The British flag in China; Superintendents of British trade; Criminal court at Canton; Lord Napier; General chamber of commerce; Captain Elliot in canton; Viceroy's report to emperor; Ensign flying again Chapter 8 The tea-trade; Green and black; Imperial; Singlo; Hyson and Gunpowder; Pekoe and Bohea; Wo-ping; Black tea districts; Cultivation of green teas; Manufacture; Injurious effects of green tea; Teas in demand at Canton; Padre Souchong; Names of teas; Increase of trade; Number of tea-dealers; Importations of the East India Company; First year of free-trade; Losers to merchants; Prospect of lowered prices; Expenses and freights lightened; Frauds and adulterations; Young Hyson; Cultivation of tea-plant elsewhere; Upper Assam; Other exports; Silks; Imports; Cotton; Saltpetre; Total value of foreign trade Chapter 9 Chinese exactions; Consoo tax; Co-hong; Port charges; Evasion of duties; Smuggling system; The opium trade; Emperor Keen-Loong; Prohibition of the drug; Kia-king; Severities against opium-smokers; Spreading of the mania; Depot at Macao; station of Lintin; Receiving ships; Clippers; Fast crabs and scrambling dragons; Native smugglers; Rapid increase in the demand; Quantity imported; Indian; Turkey; native; Chinese knowledge of the drug; The melters; Preparation of extract; Quantity manufactured; Method of smoking; Sun-qua, the Chinese Hogarth; Progress of dissipation; Admonitory pictures Chapter 10 Importance of opium trade; Deleterious qualities; Drunkards and opium-smokers; Effects in Chinese army; Evils of the importation to the empire; Exportation of sycee; Value of silver bullion; General smuggling trade; Rice importation; Corruption of mandarins; Legalization o opium importation; Chinese discussions; Chao Tsun's notions; History of Formosa; Heu Naetse; Proposed suppression of English trade; Cultivation of the poppy; Effects of opium trade; Prospects of friendly alliance; Japan; Traitorous intercourse; Persecution of missionariesChapter 11 Opposition of Fan-quis: native description of them; Exclusion of foreign women and children; Attempts at opposition; Stoppage of trade; Foreign females; Why excluded; A Chinese philosopher's defence of women; Canton regatta; Gardens of Fah-teen; Chow-chow shop; Parsee ingenuity; Process of turning out; Policy of Viceroy; Kia-King's advice; Imperial proclamations; Yearly edicts; Excuses of foreigners; Edict of 1836; Wrathful demonstrations; Departure from CantonChapter 12 Portuguese carnival; Rice Christians; Italians in China; Commissioners at Macao; Theatricals; A midshipman's complexities; The floating city at night; The Tanka people; Foreign curiosity; Interior o a mansion; An evening party; The approach of the Fan-quis; Chinese banquet; Jealousy; Boatmen errant; Fleet of centipedes; The musical shell; Smugglers' superstitionChapter 13 Measuring the ships; Fear of cannon; Dislike of foreign boats; Ascertaining the tonnage; Collecting wine-bottles; Compradores's bill of fare; Vegetables; Fruits; Mandarin oranges; Excursions on the river; French Island; The foreigners' cemetery; Botanising expeditions; Funeral expenses; Curious predictionChapter 14 Native tombs; Sepulchral monuments on Danes Island; English vanity; Remnants of oblations; Visiting tombs of ancestors enjoined by law; Punishment for neglect; Period of Tsing-ming; Appeasing the shades of the dead; Funeral banquet; The heir in his Old Age; Motives for charity; Burial of paupers; The island of bones; pauper's tombstone; Infanticide; The living and the dead child; Rarity of child murder; Affection of Chinese mothers Chapter 15 The river Hoang-ho; Unmanageable subject; Embankments; Temples to Lun- Wang; The story of the Water lily of Ying-leeChapter 16 The cold season; The winter cap; Chinese etiquette; Thatch tippets; The stevedores; Arrival of the teas; The first chop; Smuggling the silk; Settling accounts; The cumshaws; The final chin-chinning; The grand chop; Liberality of sentiment; The Chinese skull; Tartar regulation; Expression of countenance; Civilization of Chinese; Intellect; Morality; Chinese art of war; Weapons; Lower classes; Necessity for a treaty of commerce
Charles Toogood Downing went to China in the 1830s, where he practised his profession as a surgeon amongst both the Chinese and non-Chinese population, gaining an unparalleled insight into the personal and professional dealings of both the Chinese and non-Chinese population.
Reviewer: Chandar Sundaram