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Small Cetaceans of Japan: Exploitation and Biology
Published by Productivity Press
This book summarizes and analyzes the biology, ecology, exploitation and management of small cetaceans in Japan. It describes the various types of cetacean fisheries in Japan and their historical development, the life histories and ecologies of the main species involved, and the history and problems of conservation and management. The data show that in some cases the number of small cetaceans harvested exceed sustainable limits and have led to depletion of populations. The book provides a case study of what can go wrong when the needs of industry and conservation collide. The descriptions of life history and ecology are relevant to issues of conservation and management, not just for cetaceans, but for all fisheries around the world.
HISTORY OF JAPANESE CETACEAN FISHERIES Outline of History of Small-Cetacean Fisheries Importance of History Iruka vs. Kujira Conservation Measures Small Cetaceans and Related Fisheries Recent Statistics for Small-Cetacean Fisheries Hand-harpoon Fishery for Dolphins and Porpoises Pre-historic Operations Hand-harpoon Fishery for Small Cetaceans (1): before World War II Hand-harpoon Fishery for Small Cetaceans (2): after World War II Expansion of Dall's Porpoise Fishery toward the 1980s Statistics of the Dall's Porpoise Hand-harpoon Fishery Hand-harpoon Fishery off Choshi Hand-harpoon Fishery around Taiji Crossbow Fishery in Nago Drive Fisheries for Dolphins Coasts of Noto Peninsula, Sea of Japan Tsushima Islands, Tsushima Strait Iki Island, Tsushima Strait Goto Islands, East China Sea Northern Kyushu and Yamaguchi Prefecture Sanriku Coasts, North Pacific Izu Peninsula, North Pacific Operation Types Dolphin Species Taken by the Izu Fishery Catch Statistics and Magnitude of Operation Taiji, North Pacific History of the Dolphin Fishery Catch Statistics Fishing Season Trend in the Dockside Price Nago, Okinawa Island Miuranishi, Western Shikoku Small-type Whaling Origin Operation Pattern Management of Cetacean Fisheries in Japan Fishery Acts Rule for Regulation of Whaling Rule for Regulation of Mother-ship Fisheries Rule for Regulation of Steamship Whaling Rule for Regulation of Small-type Whaling Rule for Regulation of Specified Offshore Fisheries Alterations of Whaling Regulations and International Relationship after World War II Current Regulation of Cetacean Fisheries Other Laws on Conservation of Cetaceans Act on Protection of Fishery Resources Act for Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Cultural Heritage Protection Act Regulation of Fisheries for Dolphins and Porpoises Historical Background and Early Government Actions Actions of the Fisheries Agency Measures Taken with Regard to Incidental Takes and Strandings Problems in Management of Incidental Mortality Catch Quotas for Dolphins and Porpoises Moving Toward the End of Commercial Whaling Small-type Whaling Brief History Actions related to the Moratorium on Commercial Whaling Large-type Whaling Before World War II After World War II Pelagic Whaling Establishment, Expansion and Reduction Background of Overfishing Establishment of Nihon Kyodo Hogei Restructuring of the Whales Research Institute The Institute of Cetacean Research and Scientific Whaling BIOLOGY Finless Porpoise Description of the Species Scientific Name and Type Locality Distribution Worldwide Distribution Taxonomy and Geographical Variation Distribution of Finless Porpoises in Japan Local Populations of Japanese Finless Porpoises Abundance and Seasonality of Distribution Seasonal Movements Problems in Estimating Abundance Abundance of Japanese Finless Porpoises Abundance Decline in the Inland Sea Population Background of the Abundance Decline History of Protection of Finless Porpoises in Japan Life History Parturition Season Growth Reproductive Cycle Social Structure School School Size Dall's Porpoise Description Taxonomy Population Structure Pigmentation Pattern Osteology and Body Length Breeding Areas of Dalli-type Dall's Porpoises Accumulation of Pollutants Parasite Load DNA and Isozymes Population Structure: Summary and Future Studies Life History Age Determination Segregation Viewed from Body Length Composition Neonatal Body Length and Parturition Season Mating Season and Gestation Period Geographical Variation in Breeding Season Reproductive Cycle Female Sexual Maturity Male Sexual Maturity Longevity and Age Composition Body Length and Growth Curve Feeding Habits Food Consumption Prey Social Structure School Size Behavior in Relation to Age and Sex Structure Abundance and Trends Populations around Japan (see also Chapter 2) Offshore Populations Striped Dolphin Description Sea Surface Temperature Geographical Distribution Population Structure in the Western North Pacific Population and Management Geographical Distribution and Population Structure Osteology Body size Genetics Mercury Level Fetal Size and Migration Timing Suggested Population Structure Life History Age Determination Body length at Birth Body Length Composition Mean Growth Curve Male Sexual Maturity Female Sexual Maturity Declining Age of Females at Sexual Maturity Seasonality of Reproduction Seasonality of Male Reproduction Female Breeding Cycle and Annual Pregnancy Rate Female Reproductive cycle and Age Historical Change in Female Reproductive Cycle Age Composition, Sex Ratio and Apparent Mortality Rate School Structure Food Habits Effect of Fisheries on the Population Bottlenose Dolphins Taxonomy of the Genus Tursiops Identification of Bottlenose Dolphins around Japan Distribution of Bottlenose Dolphins around Japan Life History Age Determination Gestation Period, Fetal Growth and Breeding Season Sex Ratio Age Composition Body Length Frequency Growth Curve Male Sexual Maturity Sexual Maturity and Reproductive Cycle of Females Comparison between the Pacific and the Iki Samples Life History Parameters Background of the Change Short-finned Pilot Whale Description Distinction between the Globicephala spp. Description of Short-finned Pilot Whale Distribution of Short-fined Pilot Whales Northern and Southern Forms off Japan Dawn of Japanese Cetology Confusion and Reorganization More about Japanese Pilot Whales First Encounter with the Northern Form Distinction between the Two Forms Adaptive Significance of Body Size Taxonomy of the Two Forms of Short-finned Pilot Whale Life History Viewing Life through Carcasses Age Determination Growth Female Reproductive Activity School Structure Mixed School School Size Males in the School Copulation Partner and Paternity Genetic Relatedness among School Members Summary of School Structure Post-reproductive Females Interaction with Human Activities Catch History Abundance and Trends Problems in Management Baird's Beaked Whale Description Distribution Outline of the Distribution Regional Distribution and Population Structure Baird's Beaked Whales along the Pacific Coast of Japan Food Habits Stomach Contents Diving and Feeding Life History Tooth structure and Age Determination Sexual Maturity Fetal Growth and Gestation Time Body length and Age Physical Maturity Female Reproductive Cycle Social Structure Sexual Maturity and Tooth Eruption School Structure Sex Ratio Why Do Males Live Longer? Abundance History of Exploitation Type of Whaling Operation Catch Statistics Manipulated Statistics and Management Pacific White-sided Dolphin Description Populations and Their Distribution Growth and Sexual Dimorphism of the Dorsal Fin Materials and Methods Body Length Composition and Neonatal Length Body Length and Age Sexual Maturity Sexual Dimorphism of the Dorsal Fin Discussion Closing Chapter : Cetacean Conservation and Biologists The Community I Grew up in Industry and Conservation Cetacean Tragedies I have Witnessed Striped Dolphins of the Pacific Coast of Japan Sperm Whales in the Western North Pacific To Avoid Future Tragedies Unresolved Questions on Cetacean Biology Factors that Determine Breeding Season Function of Post-reproductive Females Social Sex in Cetaceans Greater Male Longevity in Baird's Beaked Whales My View on Cetacean Conservation Target to Conserve Element to Conserve Why Culture Evidence of Cetacean Culture Responsibility of Cetacean Scientists
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